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Know About The Science Behind The Brain Of Introverts And Extroverts

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Introverts And Extroverts
 krishna   Published On May 21, 2021 | Updated on Aug 8, 2022  Assignment  0

Extroversion and introversion are personality traits that define how a person concentrates and gets energy. An extrovert – often spelt "extravert" – is a person whose energy is directed outwards, and they get energy through connecting with others. Introverts are persons who direct their energies inwards and gain more energy from spending time alone. Here in this blog, you will get to know different about introvert vs extrovert.

The first official random sample by the Myers-Briggs organization showed introvert vs extrovert statistics. They reported that introverts made up 53.7% and extroverts 46.30% of the United States general population.

Introvert Vs Extrovert

Lively social contact is stimulating and revitalizing for extroverts. Extroverts prefer to solve problems by talking about them with others, to act before thinking things through, and to become bored and restless when alone.

Large social engagements, on the other hand, deplete introverts who prefer small groups or one-on-one conversations. Spending time alone re-energizes them, and they require time to consider options before making judgments.

So, which one do you belong to? In any case, I'm here to tell you that it's all a figment of your imagination. No, I'm not implying that you're hallucinating this aspect of your personality. Because our brains are varied, some people thrive on being the life of the party while others like to curl up on their couch with nothing more than the company of a good book!

I came across a headline that drew my attention when reading about science on the Internet. As a result, I've decided to devote my next blog post to this subject.

Its Scientific Basis

According to a psychologist named Hans Eysenck, extroverts have a lower degree of something called "arousal." Extroverts, according to Eysenck, require more stimulus from the outside world to feel aware and aware, whereas introverts are easily overstimulated. This helped explain extroverts' sense of adventure, challenges, and continual social company to keep them engaged. Still, introverts needed to seek out alone time to reduce their over-stimulation, thriving best at home, in quiet library nooks, or quiet parks.

Neurotransmitter Differences


To begin with, extroverts are less sensitive to dopamine and rely on it more than introverts.

Dopamine has a weaker influence on extroverts than it does on introverts. To get the same amount of enjoyment, the dopamine system in extroverts' brains must be more active. As a result, extroverts choose to seek out more circumstances in which they will be rewarded externally. When someone "[acts] fast, [takes] risks, or [seeks] novelty," these kinds of circumstances arise.

Introverts, on the other hand, are more affected by dopamine. As a result, too much dopamine can make them feel agitated. As a result, individuals don't socialize much because their dopamine levels in their brains don't have to work hard.


Introverts are more reliant on acetylcholine, a distinct sort of neurotransmitter, than on dopamine. Acetylcholine, like dopamine, is a reward; however, acetylcholine is a more intrinsic reward. It makes a person feel "relaxed, alert, and content" and allows them to focus on a single task for an extended amount of time.

Because the reward of acetylcholine is easier to obtain in a tranquil atmosphere, introverts prefer to be alone to reap this benefit.

On the other hand, extroverts do not notice the effects of acetylcholine and hence do not rely on it heavily; instead, they rely on dopamine.

Brain Pathway Length

Pathway of Dopamine

Because extroverts rely on dopamine more than introverts, information flows through their brains via the dopamine pathway. Taste, touch, sight, and sound are all regulated by this route, which runs through the brain.

Pathway of Acetylcholine

Have you ever wondered why introverts are prone to overthinking? It could be since introverts interpret stimuli differently than extroverts.

Laney theorizes that when information from the outside world enters an extrovert's brain — such as someone's speech or graphics on a computer screen — it travels a shorter journey. It travels through the brain's "quick response" centres, analyzing taste, touch, sight, and hearing.

However, the pathway for introverts may be lengthier, passing through several parts of the brain, including: 

  • The right front insular, which is linked to empathy, self-reflection, and emotional meaning. This is also the part of the brain that picks up on mistakes.
  • Broca's region, which controls self-talk and plans speech.
  • The frontal lobes on the right and left select, plan, and pick ideas or activities. Expectations and outcomes are also developed and evaluated in these areas.
  • The left hippocampus, which assigns "personal" labels to things and preserves long-term memories.

Gray Matter

The prefrontal cortex is a brain region that controls personality, decision-making, and social behaviour, among other functions. Gray matter is a type of brain tissue responsible for the majority of the brain's activity.

Finally, a study published in the Journal of Neuroscience discovered that introverts' prefrontal cortex — the part of the brain involved with abstract cognition and decision-making — had greater, thicker grey matter. In the same location, extroverts exhibited thinner grey matter. This shows that introverts are more likely to commit cerebral resources to abstract cognition, whereas extroverts are more likely to live in the moment.

What Does This Research Imply?

It suggests that you were most likely born an introvert. You'll always favour solitude and serenity, even though you'll grow and evolve through time, as we all do. 

This isn't to say you'll never enjoy a good party or seek out fresh and intriguing activities. It also doesn't mean that extroverts will never appreciate the tranquilly that comes with solitude; we still have a say in how we spend our time. And, strangely, there's evidence that our personalities change (for the better) with time, such as the fact that we all become more introverted as we age.

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