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Mitosis vs Meiosis - The Key Differences

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Mitosis vs Meiosis - The Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis
 John Luther   Published On Aug 12, 2019 | Updated on May 17, 2023  Homework  0

There are two types of cell options that are used by the organism in order to grow.  Either the cells replicate themselves for creating more cells or the cells expands in volume by themselves. Within the human beings, it is found that tissues like the blood as well as the skin mainly contains cells that actively divide while the tissue that contains fact which expands. This paper will be helpful in exploring different types of characteristics of mitosis as well as meiosis. Within the unicellular organism, the main purpose of mitosis is to proliferate the different specification properly. It is found that within the multicellular organisms, the main purpose is to grow during the development or to regenerate different types of damaged tissue. On the other hand, meiosis is to properly create gametes with one specific copy of the genetic information for the preparation of sexual production. It is found that there are a number of steps that are needed to be taken for creating proper opportunities for the genetic diversity within the daughter cell, and this is considered as the raw substrate for evolution.

What Exactly Happens During Mitosis And Meiosis?

Mitosis is mainly performed with the help of both multicellular as well as unicellular eukaryotes. The bacteria mainly have their own type of mitosis which is defined as binary fission, and this is considered to be distinct from the term meiosis as the chromosome that is present within the bacteria is not contained in the nucleus just like the eukaryotic chromosomes. On the other hand, meiosis occurs within the organism that performs a number of sexual reproductions. In addition to this, there are various types of timescales within different types of organism that can mainly affect the various factors, including the environment and temperature as well as nuclear DNA. The entire procedure generally lasts for 6 hours within yeast, whereas 40 years in human females. However, it is determined that mitosis usually takes a very much shorter time as compared to meiosis and the entire procedure takes around 10 hours for the cells in culture whereas yeast can mainly take 80 minutes id time for completing the cell cycle. Uncontrolled mitosis can occur disease like cancer, and this mainly occurs if the genes that stop dividing are mainly get switched off of the gene, which helps in encouraging the division of cells to remain inactive. On the other hand, if any type of error occurs during the process of meiosis, then it generally can lead a wrong number of chromosomes that mainly ends up within the germ cells that are known as aneuploidy. This generally can trigger miscarriage; however, this is occasionally tolerated.

What Makes Mitosis Significant?

Mitosis is defined as one of the forms of eukaryotic cell division that helps in producing two different types of daughter cells with the same type of genetic component as the parent cell. It is found that chromosomes are generally replicated during the S phase that is generally categorized in such a way in order to make sure that each of the daughter cells helps in receiving a copy of the different chromosome. In actively dividing different types of animal cells, the entire procedure takes about one hour. It is found that the replicated chromosomes are mainly attached with the help of mitosis apparatus, which mainly aligns them in order to separate the sister chromatids for producing partitioning with the help of the genetic material. This types of separation of the genetic material within the mitotic division of the nuclear are mainly followed by the cell cytoplasm separation within the cellular division for producing two different types of daughter cells. In some of the single-celled organism, mitosis generally helps in forming the basis of asexual reproduction. Within the multicellular organism, it is found that sexual reproduction mainly includes the fusion of the different haploid gametes for producing a diploid zygote. It is found that different types of mitotic divisions of the daughter cells as well as zygote for the proper growth as well as the development of different types of organism. Within the adult organism, it is found that mitosis generally helps in playing an important role for cell replacement, tumour formation as well as wound healing.

How Is Meiosis Significant?

On the other hand, meiosis is considered as one of the forms of eukaryotic cell division that generally helps in producing haploid sex gametes as well as cells that generally helps in forming different types of diploid cells. The entire procedure mainly takes the form of DNA replication that is mainly followed by the two successive nuclear as well as cell division. As in mitosis, meiosis mainly preceded by a procedure of DNA replication that helps in converting each of the chromosomes within the two sister chromatids. In meiosis, the cells mainly go through a number of similar stages that mainly utilizes different types of strategies in order to organize as well as separate different types of chromosomes. It generally requires the sister chromatids but also helps in separating different types of homologous chromosomes such that the nonidentical chromosomes mainly pairs an organism receives from its two parents. The goals are mainly accomplished in meiosis with the help of two-step division procedure. In addition to this, homologue, pairs help in separating the first round of cell division that is called meiosis I as sister chromatids mainly separates during the second round, which is mainly known as meiosis II.

Procedures Involved In The Mitosis Process

Mitosis is considered as one of the continuous procedures that are conventionally categorized into five different stages that are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, as well as telophase. In the prophase, the nuclear membrane mainly breaks down in order to form proper small vesicles, and then the nucleolus disintegrates. A proper structure is mainly known as the centrosome that mainly duplicates itself with the help of two daughter centrosomes that mainly migrates to opposite ends of the cell. The centrosomes mainly organize the microtubes production that helps in forming spindle fibres, which mainly constitute the mitotic spindle. The entire chromosomes condense into a proper compact structure, and each of the replicated chromosomes mainly consists of two different chromatids that are mainly held together with the help of the structure that is known as the centromere. In the prometaphase, the chromosomes are mainly led by the centromeres that mainly migrate to the different equatorial plane within the mid-line of the cell that is mainly formed by the centrosomes. The entire region of the mitotic spindle is mainly known as the metaphase plate, and the entire spindle fibres generally bind to a structure that is mainly associated with the centromere. It is found that each of the spindle fibres generally binds to one of the kinetochore structures of each of the side of centromere and thus the chromosomes mainly continue to condense. Within the metaphase, the chromones mainly align themselves with the metaphase plate of the spindle apparatus. In addition to this, in the anaphase, the shortest stage is known as the mitosis. The centromeres divide as well as sister chromatids of each of the chromosomes are pulled part with the help of disjoining for moving to the opposite ends that are mainly pulled by the spindle fibres that are mainly attached to the kinetochore regions. The separated sister chromatids that are mainly referred to as daughter chromosomes. In the final stage of the mitosis, a number of reversal-based processes are generally observed during the prophase where the nuclear membrane helps in reforming around the entire chromosomes that are mainly grouped in either of the cells for uncoiling as well as diffusing.  

Several Stages Of  The Meiosis Process

Meiosis is mainly divided into nine stages which for the first-time divides that are known as meiosis I and the second time it divides that is known as meiosis II. In Meiosis I, interphase is the first phase where the DNA of the cells get copied that results in two identical full sets of the chromosomes. It is found that outside of the nucleus, there are two types of centrosomes that mainly contains a pair of centrioles whose structures are generally considered to be critical for the procedure of cell division. During the interphase, the microtubes mainly extend from the centrosomes. Whereas in the prophase I, the chromosomes that are copied generally condenses into X-shaped structures which can be easily seen under the microscope. The chromosomes mainly pair so that both the copies of the chromosomes are together. In the metaphase 1, the chromosomes pairs within, line up next to each other along the center of the entire cell. In the anaphase 1, the pair of the chromosomes are pulled part with the help of a meiotic spindle and then pulls to one of the chromosomes. In the last phase, the chromosomes generally complete their entire move opposite to the poles of the cell. In Meiosis II, each of the daughter cells contains around 23 chromosomes, and in each of the daughter cells, the condensation of the chromosomes occur that is mainly visible within the X-shaped structures. In the metaphase II, each of the daughter cells of the chromosomes mainly lines up end along the cell equator. In anaphase II, the sister chromatids are mainly pulled with the help of opposite poles due to various types of action that is meiotic spindle. Moreover, the chromosomes complete their move to the opposite poles of the cell.

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