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What Are Enzymes? What Do They Do?

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 Admin  October 23, 2019  Homework  0

What Are Enzymes?

Enzymes are depicted as the substances that are present within every plant as well as animals and the main function of these enzymes is stated to speed up the biochemical reactions. The main purpose of the enzymes is depicted as that they can create as well as break down the other molecules. The molecules on which the enzymes are depicted to act are stated as substrates. These enzymes are often related to catalysts that are they are chemicals that may hasten the chemical reactions in addition to which they do not undergo any change within themselves. Enzymes are produced from an animal, fungal, bacterial, yeast as well as plant sources.  They might be Halal, Kosher, as well as GRAS and industrial grade.  They are found mainly in two states liquid as well as dry. Moreover, enzymes are depicted as a type of protein present in all living things.  They are secreted as the source as well as are biological catalysts, henceforth increasing the rate regarding the chemical reactions without undergoing any permanent changes within themselves.  They continue their work as long as the “substrate” is present within it. A substrate is a thing that binds themselves to the active site within an enzyme as well as they are converted into effective products. Once the overall products are depicted to leave the site, the enzyme is set to connect the new form of substrates and henceforth repeating the process. The activity off an enzyme is depicted to be regulated that is the enzymes may be activated as well as inhibited in regards to the fact that the rate of the formation of the product may respond to the needs of the cell present within the human body. The measures of the enzyme activity is depicted to be measured by the two activities within a human body. These are said as the specific activity as well as the turnover number.


What Are Enzymes Made Of?

Enzymes are basically made up of amino acids that are primarily depicted as proteins. When the enzyme is duly formed they are made up of stringing the overall amino acids that are counted between 100 as well as 1000 in numbers. These amino acids are depicted to be very specific as well as follows an unique order. Therefore the chain of the amino acids are folded within a unique shape. The enzymes are proteins as well as the proteins are significantly identified as the long chains of amino acids. The amino acids are joined with each other during the synthesis process of the proteins. Therefore, it can be clearly said that the enzymes are made up of amino acids. Moreover, enzymes are also stated as biological catalysts and most importantly not all of the enzymes are not proteins. There are some catalytic RNA molecules that tend to act as enzymes and thus are called ribozymes. In addition to this, the enzymes are also depicted to be developed by the unique chain of the amino acids. Thus each of the enzymes possesses its unique shape.


Types of Enzymes

There are basically six types of enzymes. These are stated as follows:

Oxidoreductases: These types of enzymes are mainly involved in the procedure of oxidation as well as reduction.

Transferases: These types of enzymes are mainly involved in the procedure of transferring functional groups such as amino as well as phosphate groups.

Hydrolases: This type of enzymes is mainly involved in the procedure of transferring water that is they catalyze the hydrolysis of the substrates.

Lyases: This type of enzymes are mainly involved in the procedure of addition as well as remove the elements of the water, carbon dioxide as well as ammonia to the other double bonds.

Isomerases: This type of enzymes are mainly involved in the procedure of catalyzing the rearrangements of the different atoms within an individual molecule.

Ligases: This type of enzymes are mainly involved in the procedure of joining the two molecules.


How Different Types of Enzymes Work in the Body

Enzymes significantly helps in speeding up the chemical reactions within the human body. They bind to molecules as well as alter them in different specific ways. They are mainly essential in regards to the processes of respiration, muscle, digesting food as well as proper functioning of the nerves and also they tend to perform many other different roles. Within the digestive system, the enzymes helps the body to break down complex larger molecules into minor molecules as an instance suppose glucose in accordance to the fact that the body can use them as fuel. Moreover, the enzymes also helps in the replication of the DNA. The individual cell in a human body comprises of DNA. Whenever a division of cell occurs, that particular DNA is copied and it needs to be done. Enzymes helps this process by unwinding the DNA coils as well as copying the information that are present within it. In addition to this the liver enzymes helps to break down the body toxins. For doing such an activity the body needs a huge range of enzymes. The working of the enzymes within the overall body is clearly stated with the adherence of the induced fit model. According to this model, the shape of the active sites are changed in regards to its substrate through continuous interaction. Once the substrate tends to get fully locked within the exact position, the process of catalysis can proceed. There are also certain enzymes that cannot properly function until and unless they possess a specific molecule of non-protein that are attached with them. These are depicted as co factors. As for example carbonic anhydrase is identified as an enzyme that mainly helps with the maintenance of the pH level within the overall body, however they cannot function if they are not significantly attached to the zinc ions.

In addition to this the metabolic enzymes are efficiently responsible for carrying out the reactions that are related to the detoxification as well as energy production. Mainly this type of enzymes does occur in the liver, pancreas as well as gallbladder. This enzymes mainly helps us to achieve the enzymes from the food source of a human body. Thus they help to ensure that the overall cells present within the body are working, healthy as well as clean. The digestive enzymes helps in the breaking down of the foods that are intake by a human body. The most important example of this type of enzyme is stated to be the enzyme amylase. This significantly enhances the breaking down of the starch into the form of simple sugars. There are three important digestive enzymes that are lipase, protease as well as amylase. Food enzymes are not normally present within a human body. This are the enzymes that are gathered from the food a human body intakes as well as take from the supplements. There are certain other enzymes to that are present within a human body. These are stated to be lactase, Pectinase, Bromelain, Papain as well as Catalase. The lactase depicts the breakdown of the lactase as well as the breakdown of the complex sugar into the milk products. The person that could not tolerate lactose does not present this type of enzymes within their body. The pectinase is associated with the fact of breaking down of the pectin-rich foods that are significantly identified as apples, citrus foods, beets, potatoes as well as tomatoes. Moreover, the enzyme bromelain is associated with the breakdown of the proteins in to much smaller peptones by the help of the hydrolysis process thus enhancing the body to fight against serious diseases such as cancer, inflammation treatment as well as improves the blood circulation within the overall body. The enzyme papain is associated to aid the human body in regards to the process of digestion. Lastly the enzyme catalase is associated with the breakdown of the hydrogen peroxide into the much easier elements such as water as well as oxygen. This enzyme plays a significant role in regards to the immune functionality of the overall human body.


Enzyme Definition: Key Takeaways

As the definition of the enzyme depicts that they are a significant kind of protein which helps us to perform many individual things they also tend to include the below provided features. These are:

  • The enzymes mainly helps in the breaking down of the food into the form of energy
  • The enzymes also help to detoxify the significant parts of the body
  • The most significant part that is enhanced by the enzymes are depicted as the formation of the new bonds within the molecules.

Lastly it can be said that the enzymes are mainly made up of the protein chains that are depicted as amino acids. Some of the enzyme naturally occurs within a human body as well as some enzymes are needed to be consumed via the medium of food. Moreover the enzymes are depicted as a type of protein that are present within all the living things. 


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